TANKPINOU N. Emmanuel is a law student at the University of Abomey Calavi in Benin. In addition to the knowledge of law training, he is interested in current affairs and public debate on the possibilities of eradicating conflicts and promoting tolerance and peace among peoples. He has worked as a volunteer in local associations in frequent contact with young people in his age group. These experiences allowed him to see the limits of the efforts of officials or international organizations, with their successes and their setbacks.
In his daily life, he has always wondered to what extent other actors or approaches would be able to contribute in the short, medium and long-term to reduce violence, thus to promote in a more innovative way the tolerance and peace among peoples. It is therefore fitting that this scholarship intervenes to give it the opportunity to contribute to finding appropriate solutions to this problem of the century.
- CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS GLOBAL INTERPRETATION OF THE THEME
Tolerance is a difficult term to define, perhaps because its definition varies slightly from one language to another, even when it comes to official languages, as the following examples show:
|Tolerance: Attitude which consists in admitting to others a way of thinking or acting differently from that which one adopts oneself (Petit Robert dictionary).
Tolerencia: Capacidad of aceptar ideas and opinions distintas of the propia (diccionario Planeta of lengua espanola).
Tolerance: Willingness to tolerate, forbearance.
Tolerate: Endure, permit (person, religious sect, opinion) to exist without interference or molestation [..] allowing of differences in religions opinion without discrimination (Concise Oxford English Dictionary)
At the beginning of this clarification, it should be noted that all the acts of intolerance originate from the refusal to recognize the fundamental value of the human person. Thus, there is intolerance when a person or group considers itself or considers its beliefs or way of life to be superior to others. It can have a range of consequences, from a simple lack of courtesy or ignorance of others to the birth of elaborate social systems like apartheid in South Africa to deliberate annihilation. of a people by genocide (case of Kenya).
If Tolerance is valued in a constructive way, it can have extremely positive repercussions for the individual as well as for society as a whole. It is essential to educate a new generation of people by giving them solid foundations of the culture of peace and tolerance and to create the conditions for maintaining this climate of peace. The overarching goal of education for tolerance is to recognize and respect the dignity and integrity of all human beings; an open door on Peace.
Intolerance is a dangerous threat to peace. Let us examine already the representations that both of them have of peace, to realize us that the concept covers various meanings:
|In the infant, peace is translated by affection, security; in the child, it is enjoyment, finding; in youths, peace is expressed by trust, agreement, a contract with nature; in the adult, peace is in a steady job, in the home, in his spare time; in the senior, amity becomes an sensitive feeling, a sense of refuge. However, it should be noted that these different representations of peace illustrate a dimension of peace, that is, inner peace, a state of mind resulting from personal harmony.
Other conceptions of peace evoke relationships with others (social peace), between states; in this respect, we can say that peace is the relationship between people who are not in conflict, quiet relations between two people. The little Robert explains that Peace is the situation of a nation, of a state that is not at war, it is peaceful relations between nations, it is concordance. “So Tolerance, Peace is, therefore, polysemous is understanding, security, harmony with nature.
What is important to remember from these clarifications is that peace is not only the absence of conflict, nor is it the short interval between two wars, as H. Groots thought. Peace is at the same time an inner state of mind resulting from a personal harmony, a state of social harmony resulting from an aptitude for the peaceful solution of conflicts, a harmony with nature.
In a much deeper context, peace is not only disarmament, because stopping one’s armament does not necessarily lead to peace, and that still poses the right of every people to defend themselves; So peace is more than the absence of war, conflict, opposition, which is a utopia because intra-personal and interpersonal conflicts will always exist.
- BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION
According to the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, conflicts and tensions exist today in every region of the world. So today we are witnessing a proliferation of weapons, an institutional violence that is also the result of poverty, social inequalities are characterized by hunger, illiteracy. This violence is characteristic of the state of injustice and oppression that rages in many developing states and can engender another violence that some describe as just as much as resistance to oppression is a right. According to a report published in 2004 by UNESCO, the intolerance of a society is the sum of the intolerance of its members. Sectarianism, religious intolerance, stereotypes, stigmatization, insults and racist jokes are all examples of individual manifestations of intolerance to which many people are subjected daily. This side degenerates very quickly to a climate of instability, a real threat to peace.
School as an institution of society cannot be excluded from such reflection, because it is affected by this structural violence and is a great tool for experimenting with ideas. Both schools can play a fundamental role in promoting tolerance among young people by educating them differently, as the development of local jobs is a decisive factor in maintaining tolerance and peace in Africa, as in the rest of the world. However, several countries are evolving in a pyramidal education system where young people find themselves outside the school system already at the end of primary school or even high school often without credible alternatives.
According to the 2015 World Bank report, about 89 million young people aged 12 to 24 are out of school in sub-Saharan Africa. In the next ten years, another 40 million young people will probably have left school to face an uncertain future, due to lack of knowledge of local opportunities, professional qualifications, and practical skills. This lack of local opportunities today is forcing many young people into illegal immigration. It is this state of poverty that made Paul VI say in his encyclical of March 26, 1967, that “development is the new name of peace.” It is therefore important to imagine innovative solutions that address this issue in a holistic way by focusing on improving the education system, orienting and supporting learners so that their training choices meet the needs of the market and finally finding credible alternatives for young people who are out of the system school.
We believe more than ever that the opportunities offered by basic education and employment promotion to promote peace and tolerance on the one hand and information and communication technologies to accelerate the dissemination of knowledge and know-how and reach previously marginalized targets. As such, we propose to develop an integrated platform for access to local assets to enable the dissemination of official information on jobs and jobs, offers and opportunities in the country, disseminate best practices and knowledge and facilitate mobility of skills within the country and community spaces.
The project that is the subject of this document is a pilot phase focusing on the case of Benin. Its implementation will make it possible, in a research-action dynamic, to apprehend the difficulties inherent in a generalization at the level of the community spaces, but also the factors of success that could serve as levers at the sub-regional level. It will make a decision on the feasibility and relevance of YOUTH EDUC.
- DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
The aim of the WARNED YOUTH project is to study, on the one hand, the possibility of including religious tolerance lessons in the national education curriculum of Benin, any other target country and those in conflict zones, and on the other hand the development of a platform for promoting local opportunities in Benin. It is for young people since the basic school to receive a fairer education on tolerance and peace in their environment. The second component is based on the creation of a viable opportunities development platform in Benin localities and a bank of projects adapted to each Benin locality to facilitate the development of skilled trades and to curb illegal immigration.
- GENERAL OBJECTIVE
The overall objective of this project is to promote tolerance and peace by creating conditions adapted to the local and harmonious development of the national territory to facilitate the return of the diaspora with a view to limiting illegal immigration to the West and radicalization of young people.
- SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Specifically it will be:
- Include in the school curriculum a discipline of religious tolerance in primary, secondary and university schools;
- Create and operationalize the Virtual Platform and Local Centers for the Promotion of Local Government in each locality of the target country (Benin case);
- Accompany young people to propose and invest in the necessary steps to face the entrepreneurial challenges for development, tolerance, and peace in their locality.
- COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS OF THE PROJECT
Four components form the backbone of this project:
- Development of an educational program with practical cases on peace and tolerance at the three levels of education
- Develop a virtual platform to promote the wealth of each locality in the target country (Benin case);
- The introduction of the Information and Orientation Bus, and the installation of Local Information and Orientation Centers;
- Project governance.
6.1 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT / EDUCATIONAL CONTENT
The purpose of this component is to encourage educators and community leaders to take initiatives to incorporate actions to include in the education of students and students disciplines on tolerance that must be contained in educational programs. The output of this component is to define basic assessment tools to encourage the goals of learning tolerance in school and in the family unit. This will include:
- Publish training modules to strengthen or change opinions and beliefs about the values of peace, tolerance in mutual relations and the rights of all human beings
6.2. STUDY OF THE RESOURCES OF EACH LOCALITY OF BENIN
The purpose of this component is to initiate a review of the amenities of the territory to identify employment opportunities and development of each locality. The main output of this component is a website supported by an Android application including:
- An illustrated and geo-referenced project bank of project ideas that highlight the major wealth and business opportunities of each locality in Benin (or other of the target country);
- A virtual exchange area between promoters and donors.
6.3. COMMISSIONING AMBIENT INFORMATION AND ORIENTATION BUS (B10), AND INSTALLATION OF LOCAL INFORMATION AND ORIENTATION CENTER (CLIO)
The third component of the project consists of the opening of the Information and Orientation Bus, and the installation of Local Information and Orientation Centers. The Ambulant Information and Orientation Bus on board consultants to provide guidance and provide all possible information on the opportunities and wealth of each city in Benin. To fill the information deficit on the territory, the Bus will pass in the 77 municipalities of Benin for a broad information and awareness campaign. Supporting CLIOs are community spaces housed in public colleges or borough centers and facilitated by permanent staff and volunteers who relay national, regional and international initiatives, whether they are state or community initiatives. in the field of education, guidance and vocational training for young people. They offer users the services of:
- information on studies, opportunities and growing sector of the region, vocational training, professions related to the local, national, regional and international job market;
- access to the digital platform;
- individual advice on job opportunities and business ideas promoted locally.
The BIO creates in intervention areas, a technological and logistical environment to raise productivity, in order to promote the emergence and survival of activities and to settle young people and women. Its particularity lies in the establishment of an employment information system and a market information system. It is a question of putting in coherence the different bases that exist in a system of reference with shared indicators and a unified management at the level of the Ministry in charge of the employment.
6.4. THE PROJECT GOVERNANCE
This fourth component takes into account the administrative and financial management, the communication, the training and the support of the change for this project. The success of the project depends on the information and the participation of the actors at various levels (craftsmen, school and student training centers, professional organizations, NGOs, state actors, development partners).
The lack of skilled human resources, the absence of an adequate digital culture among users (especially out-of-school youth) are all parameters that could hinder the objective use of such a web platform and the Android application and of school discipline on tolerance. For this, it is necessary to communicate proactively around the project, to establish a successful and sustainable training plan and a mechanism to support change. It is therefore important to define and implement a communication strategy, both institutional and operational, to popularize the platform and mobilize stakeholders.
- PROJECT BENEFICIARIES
The main beneficiaries of this project are the children, then the young intellectuals or excluded from the education system of formal training and in search of a professional opportunity. The project can also be used by any company or financial partner that needs to invest in promising areas.
The implementation of the project can also allow international institutions such as CARE International and the Swiss Cooperation to have data and feedback to design a larger project at WAEMU level to effectively combat illegal immigration and the radicalization of young people.
7.1. Direct beneficiaries
The direct beneficiaries of this project are:
❑ The children
❑ The young graduates or not
❑ The unemployed people
❑ The artisans
❑ The municipalities
❑ The diaspora
7.2. Indirect beneficiaries
Among the indirect beneficiaries we can count:
❑ Mohamed Dekkak Foundation
❑ African Governments
❑ The Swiss Office for Cooperation and Development UEMOA
❑ World Bank
❑ The European Union
❑ Other Technical and Financial Partners
- PROJECT IMPACTS
This project responds to the objectives and strategic vision of the Government of Benin and the countries of the ECOWAS zone in terms of socio-economic development, to those of the international community including the objectives of sustainable development and aims to directly and concretely reach the capacity resilience of the targets that are children, young graduates or not and the people of Benin in general. Its success will have a definite impact on all the countries of the sub-region in terms of local employment promotion and the maintenance of peace and social stability.
|Efficiency and effectiveness
• Production of quality information on national resources
• Creating conditions for access to project and program funding
Good governance and stability
• Best informing stakeholders in the education system and promoting employment
• Increased visibility of the assets of towns and villages
• Orientation towards productions that value local potential
• Limitation of the number of candidates for illegal immigration
• Reduction of poverty and youth unemployment rate
• Establishment of a climate of peace and tolerance
• Increased confidence in other countries
• Better management of local resources
|Satisfaction of the populations
• Better access to information on the orientation towards the growth sectors
• Improved social well-being
• Improved productivity and revenue
• Improvement of the living conditions of the population
• Existence of reliable data on local jobs in the formal and informal sector
· Encouragement to develop the local Accelerated and inclusive economic growth
|Stowage with PAG, BENIN REVELE
|Government Action Program, Benin Revealed: Implementation of
• Axis 4 on improving economic growth, particularly through the digital economy (pillar 2: Structural transformation of the economy)
• Axis 6 on Strengthening Basic Social Services and Social Protection (Pillar 3) and
• Axis 7 on the balanced and sustainable development of the national area (Pillar 3).
|Linking with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
|• SDG N ° 1: Eliminating poverty in all its forms
• SDG N ° 2: Fight against hunger
• SDG N ° 8: Promoting economic growth
• SDG N ° 9: Promote sustainable industrialization
• SDG 11: Making cities and communities sustainable
• SDG N ° 16: Promoting the advent of peaceful and open societies for sustainable development
• SDG N ° 17: Strengthen the means to implement and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
- LOGICAL MODEL OF THE PROJECT
For project monitoring and evaluation, a number of measurable quantities will be identified as milestones for assessing progress and completion of selected tasks. As the project progresses, we will check the effectiveness of the results through the indicators listed below in the table below:
Main objective: Promoting tolerance and peace by creating conditions adapted to the local and harmonious development of the national territory in order to facilitate the return of the diaspora with a view to limiting the radicalization of young people and illegal immigration to the West.
|Indicators of results
|Source of verification
|Specific objective 1: Inclusion in the school curriculum of a discipline of religious tolerance in primary, secondary and university schools.
|❑ Develop learning module modules on tolerance and peace
|❑ 100 schools and universities have adopted the inclusion of an apprenticeship program on tolerance and peace in their disciplines
||❑ 50 training centers have embraced the idea of adopting a peace discipline
|Specific objective 2: Create and operationalize the Virtual Platform and Local Centers for the Promotion of Local Amenities
|❑ Identify and collect data on job opportunities and business ideas in each locality of the country
|❑ The platform is developed and operational with 1000 project files adapted to the opportunities in each locality
|❑ 200 opportunity cards are available and usable on the web and Android platform, with 1000 registered downloads
|Test of the URL and the rate of availability of the site and statistics of Play Store
|❑ develop partnerships with educational centers and local communities for hosting CLIOs
|❑ 01 Information and Orientation Information Bus is put into service and 77 Local Information and Orientation Centers are installed and operational throughout the national territory
|❑ 30 local centers are set up with stakeholder buy-in. The bus travels the whole country at least twice to communicate, orient young people in areas not covered by CLIOs
|Specific objective 3: Support young people to propose and invest in the necessary steps to face the entrepreneurial challenges for development, tolerance, and peace in their locality.
|❑ Organization of forums, meetings with young people Dialogue with young people on local development and the promotion of peace
❑ Collecting youth business ideas for publishing on the platform
|❑ Microprojects and businesses are set up by youth in various sectors of activity specific to their communities
❑ 500 youth are supported by donors on their projects, and the 200 projects have been heard.
|❑ At least 100 meetings were held with statistics of micro projects and businesses in localities
❑ 50% of initiated projects are registered at CLIO level and updated on the website
Partnership agreements between micro-project promoters and technical and financial partners
- RISK MANAGEMENT
To ensure project success, mitigation measures have been planned to address identified risks. The main risks are presented in the table below:
|Problems related to internet
|Ongoing infrastructure project in the Digital Universal Access Program for ICT Services initiated by the Government of Benin
|Low interest of young people accustomed to the classical system
|Communication and Change
|Security of the computer Moderate platform
|Strengthening the security of the
|Coordination problems due to Moderate the multiplicity of speakers in the project
|Implementation of a system comprising a light Central Unit with regional focal points, namely the Local Information and Orientation Centers and a Steering Committee comprising all the actors, ministries and institutions concerned
|The difficulty of a perpetuation of centers
|Exploitation of the premises and staff of centers the Training Centers, of the Interdepartmental Chamber of Trades, Communication for the appropriation and support of CLIO by professional organizations
|Low stakeholder mobilization
|Formal Support of Ministries of Decentralization, Youth and the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training, Membership of Professionals in the Sector
- PILOTAGE AND PROJECT EXECUTION
Given the multisectoral nature of the project, a Steering Committee (COPIL) is in charge of the general orientation of the project and its role is to facilitate consultations. It is composed of representatives:
* Technical and Financial Partners
* Ministry in charge of the promotion of employment
* Ministry in charge of Vocational Training,
* Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education
* Professionals of the sector
The Execution Unit
The Warned Youth is a reform project geared towards bodies, especially the professionals of the employment issue. A local NGO could ensure implementation, under the supervision of the COPIL and following the guidelines of the main technical and financial partner and in relation with the various stakeholders.
- PLANNING D’EXECUTION PREVISIONNEL
Le projet devrait demarrer le 1er Mars 2018 pour une duree de 12 mois environs.
- COSTING AND FINANCING PLAN
Warned Youth is a project of public utility whose implementation must be ensured on public currencies. However, donors who intervene on the themes of promoting tolerance and peace, improving the business climate, good governance and the fight against poverty and promoting employment may be interested in financing everything. part of the project or provide technical support. These include
- Mohamed Dekkak Foundation
- The French Development Agency (AFD)
- Handicap International
- The Swiss Cooperation Office
- The World Bank